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Pelvic Inflammatory Disease and Tuboovarian Abscess

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and tuboovarian abscess (TOA) are associated with a history of new or multiple sexual partners, frequent intercourse, recent insertion of an intrauterine device, lower socioeconomic status, younger age, history of smoking, and previous PID or sexually transmitted diseases.


  • The main cause of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease is chlamydial infection.
  • Other nongenital pathogens, such as Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae, may be the causes of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease.
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease occurs when a bacteria or organism enters the cervix and spreads upward.


  • Lower abdominal or pelvic pain that is dull, constant, and poorly localized +++++
  • Vaginal discharge ++++
  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding ++
  • Urinary symptoms ++
  • Dyspareunia


  • Lower abdominal tenderness ++++
  • Adnexal mass or tenderness ++++
  • Cervical motion tenderness
  • Mucopurulent endocervical discharge
  • Endocervix that is erythematous, edematous, or friable in
    association with temperature of >38° C +++


  • You can be cured Pelvic Inflammatory Disease with several types of antibiotics. Your doctor will determine and prescribe the best therapy to treat the Pelvic Inflammatory Disease. If a woman has pelvic pain and other symptoms of PID, it is critical that she seek care immediately. Prompt antibiotic treatment can prevent severe damage to reproductive organs. The longer a woman delays treatment for PID, the more likely she is to become infertile or to have a future ectopic pregnancy because of damage to the fallopian tubes.
  • Another treatment for Pelvic Inflammatory Disease is Hospitalization. It is recommended if the woman has severely ill such as nausea, vomiting, and high fever or if it is pregnant and has an abscess in the fallopian tube or ovary (tubo-ovarian abscess). If symptoms continue or if an abscess does not go away, surgery may be needed. Complications of PID, such as chronic pelvic pain and scarring are difficult to treat, but sometimes they can improve with surgery.

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